We’ve gathered all important infertility statistics right here so we can better understand how common it is, what are its causes, treatments, & alternatives. Read on!
Having a child can be one of life’s most incredible feelings, but being unable to conceive can cause stress, anxiety, depression, and a myriad of other negative mental health issues for both men and women.
Infertility is more common than you might think, and rates of infertility around the world have been steadily increasing for years. In response to this trend, new treatments have been developed to help couples conceive.
Here are some highlights from our data:
- Males contribute to 50% of overall infertility cases and are solely responsible for 20-30% of them.
- 1 in 10 American men who are trying to conceive a child suffers from male infertility.
- As men get older, the ability of their sperm to move properly toward an egg decreases by 0.8% per year.
- One survey found that fertility treatments effectively facilitated a full-term pregnancy nearly half (47%) of the time.
- Most infertility cases are not caused by a known inherited condition.
- Between 70% and 80% of women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) are infertile.
What Is Infertility?
In case you didn’t already know, here’s the medical definition of infertility:
Infertility is a disease in the reproductive system (male or female) that prevents natural pregnancy after a year or more of regular unprotected sex. (World Health Organization, 2020a)1
How Common Is Infertility?
Infertility rates vary from country to country, but both global and national rates tend to sit between ten and fifteen percent.
Infertility is measured in different ways. Male and female infertility are individual categories with their own unique causes. Couples who are infertile could be impacted by male infertility, female infertility, or both.
- Infertility impacts as many as 15% of reproductive-aged couples around the world. (World Health Organization, 2020b)2
- It’s estimated that between 48 million couples and 186 million people suffer from infertility worldwide. (World Health Organization, 2019)3
- In 20% of cases, both partners experience fertility obstacles. (University of Utah Health, 2020)4
- Infertility rates are increasing. 1 in 6 couples who want a child are diagnosed as infertile. (Biology of Reproduction, 2019)5
- One study found that 52% of Americans have experienced infertility. (Single Care, 2020a)6
- Between 10% and 15% of couples in the U.S. are infertile. (Mayo Clinic, 2021a)7
- About 1 in 8 American couples are affected by infertility – that’s roughly 6.7 million people each year who have trouble conceiving a child. (Fertility Answers, 2020)8
- Women having children at later ages contributes to infertility, as well as divorces and remarriages. (Premier Health, 2016)9
- As people delay starting a family, they can be exposed to more environmental toxins and STDs. Health problems also increase with age, and some treatments for those problems can cause infertility. (Premier Health, 2016)9
Infertility Rates for Males and Females
Just like it takes two to make a child, it sometimes takes two to prevent one. Both males and females can have different degrees of infertility. Sometimes they could still conceive a child with a fertile partner, but sometimes their combined infertility prevents conception.
Here are the fertility numbers for both men and women:
- The prevalence rate of female infertility increased from 1,366.85 per 100,000 people in 1990 to 1,571.35 per 100,000 people in 2017. This is an increase of 0.37% per year and a 14.962% increase overall. (Aging, 2019)10
- The percentage of married women aged 15 to 44 who were infertile dropped from 8.5% (2.4 million women) in 1982 to 6.0% (1.5 million women) in 2006-2010. (National Health Statistics Reports, 2013)11
- Of women aged 15 to 49 with 0 prior births, 19.4% are infertile. Of women the same age with 1 or more births, 6.0% are infertile. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018a)12
- The three countries with the highest increases in female infertility rates from 1990 to 2010 were Turkey (3.928%), Peru (3.659%), and Morocco (2.772%). (Aging, 2019)10
- The three countries with the greatest decreases in female infertility rates from 1990 to 2010 were Zambia (-5.954%), Namibia (-5.943%), and Burundi (-3.112%) (Aging, 2019)10
- The age-standardized prevalence of male infertility increased from 710.19 per 100,000 people in 1990 to 768.59 per 100,000 people in 2017. This is an increase of 0.291% per year and an 8.224% increase overall. (Aging, 2019)10
- Males contribute to 50% of overall infertility cases and are solely responsible for 20-30% of them. (Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, 2015)13
- Infertility due to male factors ranges from 20-70%, and the percentage of infertile men ranges from 2.5-12%. (Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, 2015)13
- 10% of all males in the U.S. who are trying to have a child are afflicted by infertility. (Cleveland Clinic, 2021)14
- For males, the three countries with the greatest increases in infertility rates from 1990 to 2010 were Peru (2.265%), Morocco (1.676%), and Turkey (1.498%). (Aging, 2019)10
- For males, the three countries with the greatest decreases in infertility rates from 1990 to 2010 were Zambia (-2.900%), Namibia (-2.181%), and Niger (-1.750%). (Aging, 2019)10
What Causes Infertility?
There are dozens of causes of infertility among males and females. Some are hereditary, some are medical, and some are simply due to poor lifestyle choices or aging.
Here are some of the most prevalent causes of infertility:
- 1 in 4 couples doesn’t understand why they have difficulty getting or staying pregnant. (Single Care, 2020a)6
- As reported by Americans, these are the most common causes of fertility problems: (Single Care, 2020a)6
- Don’t know the cause of their infertility – 25%
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) (female factor) – 19%
- Low sperm production (male factor) – 17%
- Endometriosis (female factor) – 17%
- Hormonal disorders (male or female factor) – 12%
- Uterine abnormalities or fibroids (female factor) – 11%
- Medication side effects (male or female factor) – 9%
- Diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) (female factor) – 9%
- Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) (female factor) – 8%
- Menopause (female factor) – 7%
- Unhealthy habits, i.e., heavy drinking, smoking, steroid use, illicit drug use, etc. (male or female factor) – 7%
- Genetic disorders (male or female factor) – 6%
- Varicoceles (male factor) – 5%
- Other Infertility causes: weight-related problems, thyroid disorders, anti-sperm antibodies, and unexplained infertility (male or female factor) – 5%
- Sexually transmitted disease (male or female factor) – 3%
- Here are the most common identifiable factors that contribute to female infertility: (StatPearls, 2021)15
- Ovulatory disorders – 25%
- Endometriosis – 15%
- Pelvic adhesions – 12%
- Tubal blockage – 11%
- Other tubal/uterine abnormalities – 11%
- Hyperprolactinemia – 7%
- These are the most common causes of male infertility: (CNY Fertility, 2022)16
- Primary hypogonadism – 30-40%
- Androgen Sensitivity
- Androgen Excess State
- Estrogen excess state
- Congenital or developmental testicular disorder (e.g., Klinefelter syndrome)
- Testicular Trauma
- Altered Sperm Transport – 10-20%
- Obstruction of the reproductive tract
- Hormonal disorders
- Failure to produce sperm
- Poor sperm function and quality
- Secondary Hypogonadism 1-2%
- Androgen excess state (e.g., tumor, exogenous administration)
- Congenital idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism
- Estrogen excess state (e.g., tumor)
- Infiltrative disorder (e.g., sarcoidosis, tuberculosis)
- Medication effect
- Multiorgan genetic disorder (e.g., Prader-Willi syndrome)
- Pituitary adenoma
- Other/Unknown Causes – 40-50%
- Exposure to toxins
- Smoking/drinking/marijuana use/other lifestyle choices
- Testicular Failure
- Primary hypogonadism – 30-40%
- The following factors can increase a woman’s risk of infertility: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018b)17
- Excessive alcohol use
- People with overweight or obesity or underweight
- Extreme weight gain or loss
- Excessive physical or emotional stress that results in amenorrhea (absent periods).
- The following factors can increase a man’s risk of infertility: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018b)17
- Being overweight or obese
- Excessive alcohol use
- Excessive drug use
- Exposure to testosterone
- Exposure to radiation
- Frequent exposure of the testes to high temperatures
- Exposure to certain medications
- Exposure to environmental toxins
Common Causes of Female Infertility
We covered the general causes of infertility, but now it’s time to dig into the medical weeds a bit. Women can have specific disorders or conditions in their reproductive organs that affect their ability to bear a child.
Here’s a look at some of the most prevalent medical conditions causing infertility in women:
- Ovulation disorders impact how eggs release from the ovaries. They can include hormonal disorders (such as polycystic ovary syndrome) or have underlying causes like eating disorders, tumors, or excessive exercise. (Lome Linda University, 2019)18
- Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) affects 6-12% of reproductive-aged women. It prevents the release of a woman’s mature eggs, which turn into cysts. (Loma Linda University, 2019)18
- Between 70% and 80% of women with PCOS are infertile. (Clinics, 2015)19
- Endometriosis is a common disease occurring in 6-10% of the female population. It occurs in 35-50% of women who experience pain, infertility, or both. (Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, 2010)20
- In women under 35, endometriosis is associated with a greater risk of infertility. (Human Reproduction, 2016)21
- Uterine fibroids (also called myomas or leiomyomas) are benign muscle tissue tumors in the uterus. Women with fibroids usually have more than one, and they can change the shape and size of the uterus or even the cervix. (American Society for Reproductive Medicine, 2015)22
- Between 5-10% of infertile women have fibroids. For most women, fibroids won’t affect fertility. Their size and location determine their impact on fertility. (American Society for Reproductive Medicine, 2015)22
When Does Age Begin to Impact Fertility?
While it’s obvious that infertility increases with age, when exactly does that begin to happen?
For women, it starts at around 35. For men, it’s around age 40. Here’s the data we found on infertility by age:
- The odds of female infertility increase with age and do so most significantly after age 35: (Science, 1986)23
- 25 to 29 years old – 6%
- 30 to 34 years old – 14%
- 35 to 39 years old – 31%
- Of those aged 15-44 in 2017 around the world, people aged 35-39 had the highest rates of infertility, and people aged 15-19 had the lowest. (Aging, 2019)10
- On average, females’ natural fertility shows a significant decline at 35. The best reproductive years are in the 20s, and by age 40, a woman’s chance of natural pregnancy is less than 5% per cycle. (Fertility Answers, 2020)8
- Of couples where the woman is aged 30-39, 22% have difficulties conceiving their first child. When the woman is younger than 30, only 13% of couples have difficulty with conception. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018b)17
- From 2015-2019, these are the percentages of married women aged 15-49 who experienced infertility by age and by number of births: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018b)17
- 15-29 years
- 0 births – 12.6%
- 1 or more births – 5.1%
- 30-39 years
- 0 births – 22.1%
- 1 or more births – 5.7%
- 40-49 years
- 0 births – 26.8%
- 1 or more births – 6.5%
- 15-29 years
- Couples with a male partner over the age of 40 are more likely to have difficulty conceiving. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018b)17
- Male fertility begins to decline as sperm quality decreases from ages 40-45. As male age increases, the chance of pregnancy decreases, and the risk of miscarriage or fetal death increases. (Better Health, n.d.)24
- Sperm motility is the ability of the sperm to “swim” properly toward the egg. (Extend Fertility, 2018)25
- Sperm motility is decreased by 0.8% per year in men. (Human Reproduction, 2008)26
- Sperm morphology is the shape and size of sperm, including head size and DNA content, midpiece, and tail. The head shape can affect the sperm’s ability to penetrate and fertilize a woman’s egg. (Loma Linda University, 2017)27
- Each year of age, a man’s sperm morphology decreases in quality by 0.65%. (Legacy, 2021)28
- Sperm count is the number of sperm produced per ejaculation. Lower sperm counts decrease fertility. (Legacy, 2021)28
- Each year, a man’s sperm count decreases by 2.6%. (New England Journal of Medicine, 1995)29
Infertility by Ethnicity
In the U.S., different ethnic groups are affected differently by infertility rates. Asians and Pacific Islanders are the most fertile, while African-Americans report the most difficult conceiving children.
These statistics show fertility rates by ethnicity:
- African-Americans have a 1.45x higher adjusted infertility prevalence than White/Caucasian Americans. (Fertility and Sterility, 2017)30
- American Indians and Alaska Natives have a 1.37x higher adjusted infertility rate than White/Caucasian Americans. (Fertility and Sterility, 2017)30
- These are the prevalence percentages of infertility by ethnic group: (Fertility and Sterility, 2017)30
- White – 6.1%
- Black – 8.2%
- American Indian/Alaska Native – 7.0%
- Asian/Pacific Islander – 6.0%
- Non-Hispanic – 6.2%
- Hispanic – 7.1%
- Total – 6.4%
While infertility can be distressing for couples, there are several treatment options with a great chance of success.
Americans may have trouble paying for some of these treatments, but they aren’t impossible to access. Here’s the data on the most effective options:
- One survey found that 60% of American couples reported receiving some form of fertility treatment. (Single Care, 2020a)6
- The same survey broke down fertility treatments by the percentages of people who reported using them: (Single Care, 2020a)6
- 20% of respondents received in-vitro fertilization (IVF).
- 17% of respondents received fertility medications, such as Clomid, metformin, Femara, Cycloset, Gonal-F, etc.
- 12% of respondents received ovulation induction (OI).
- 11% of respondents received intrauterine insemination (IUI).
- 9% of respondents received intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).
- 9% of respondents received surgery.
- 6% of respondents received intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI).
- 6% of respondents used donor conception.
- 5% of respondents received preimplantation genetic testing (PGT).
- 5% of respondents used a surrogate.
- 2% of respondents received other reproductive treatments.
- 40% of respondents did not receive fertility treatments.
- Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) can be used to treat infertility in both eggs and sperm. (MedlinePlus, 2015)31
- ART is expensive and not typically covered by health insurance. Couple treatments can cost over $30,000. (Biology of Reproduction, 2019)5
- ART use is increasing at a rate of 5-10% per year as the need for infertility treatments increases. (Biology of Reproduction, 2019)5
- In 2017, ART was used in the following percentages by age group: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017)32
- Less than 35 years old – 37.6%
- 35-37 years old – 22.3%
- 38-40 years old – 19.4%
- 41-42 years old – 9.4%
- Greater than 42 years old – 11.3%
- Reported reasons for using ART are as follows: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017)32
- Diminished ovarian reserve – 31.6%
- Male factor infertility – 28.2%
- Ovulatory disorder – 14.8%
- Tubal factor – 11.1%
- Endometriosis – 6.9%
- Uterine factor – 6.3%
- Other factors – 23.2%
- Unexplained – 11.1%
- 12.2% of American women aged 15-49 used infertility services from 2015-2019. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018a)12
- One study found that 13.7% of married or cohabiting women ages 25-44 reported seeking infertility evaluation, and about 7.2% underwent fertility treatment after evaluation. (Fertility and Sterility, 2013)33
- Of women aged 15-49 from 2015-2019, the following percentages received these infertility treatments: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018a)12
- Medical help to get pregnant – 8.9%
- Advice – 6.7%
- Tests on the woman or the man – 5.6%
- Ovulation drugs – 4.0%
- Surgery to treatment on blocked tubes – 0.7%
- Artificial insemination – 1.7%
- Assisted Reproductive Technology – 0.5%
- Any medical help to prevent miscarriage – 5.2%
- Of women aged 15-49 from 2015-2019, these are the percentages that received infertility treatments organized by age and by whether or not they had ever had a successful birth: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018a)12
- Total (15-49 years)
- 0 births – 6.4%
- 1 or more births – 16.6%
- 15-29 years
- 0 births – 2.7%
- 1 or more births – 11.5%
- 30-39 years
- 0 births – 13.6%
- 1 or more births – 15.5%
- 40-49 years
- 0 births – 21.8%
- 1 or more births – 20.0%
- Total (15-49 years)
- Of Americans who received fertility treatments: (Single Care, 2020a)6
- 47% of respondents successfully conceived and stayed pregnant
- 24% of respondents successfully conceived but could not stay pregnant
- 29% of respondents did not successfully conceive
- One survey found the following data on children born from fertility treatments: (Single Care, 2020a)6
- 14% of Americans had no children as a result of fertility treatment
- 52% of Americans have had one child
- 24% of Americans have had two children
- 7% of Americans have had three children
- 2% of Americans have had four children
- 1% of Americans have had more than four children
- Only 15% of Americans reported spending less than $1,000 on fertility treatments, while 14% said they spent between $10,000 and $20,000. (Single Care, 2020a)6
- Americans reported paying for their fertility treatments in the following ways: (Single Care, 2020a)6
- Insurance or Medicaid partially covered treatments – 29%
- Paying out of pocket for all treatments – 24%
- Insurance or Medicaid covered all treatments – 20%
- A fertility financing program partially covered treatments –14%
- A fertility financing program covered all treatments – 12%
- Receiving a grant that covered all treatments – 12%
- Receiving a grant that partially covered treatments – 9%
- A prescription discount card on fertility medications – 9%
- Using an online pharmacy to receive more affordable medications – 5%
- Using an international pharmacy to receive more affordable medications – 4%
- Traveling out of state to receive more affordable treatments – 4%
- Traveling out of the U.S. to receive more affordable treatments – 3%
- Other payment methods, such as being part of a medical study that covered costs – 2%
- None of the above – 3%
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
Since the first in vitro fertilization in 1978, millions of babies have been born around the world using the process.
While it can take several treatment cycles to successfully conceive a child, IVF is the most successful fertility treatment there is.
- In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) is the most effective form of ART. It can use a couple’s own eggs and sperm or those of any healthy donor. (Mayo Clinic, 2021b)34
- Approximately 75% of IVF cycles fail, causing women to undergo multiple treatments. (Biology of Reproduction, 2019)5
- In 2018, there were 81,478 babies born as a result of IVF. (Single Care, 2020b)35
- The estimated success rates after one cycle of IVF by age are as follows: (Fertility Solutions, 2013)36
- Females under the age of 30 – 46% chance of getting pregnant
- Females between the ages of 30 and 33 – 58% chance of getting pregnant
- Females between the ages of 34 and 40 – 38% chance of getting pregnant
- Females between the ages 40 and 43 – 12% chance of getting pregnant
- From 1978 to 2018, it’s estimated that 8 million babies have been born as a result of IVF worldwide. (European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology, 2018)37
Infertility and Adoption
Most couples want to conceive a biological child together, but the desire to raise a family isn’t always limited by biological relations.
The most common reason people don’t adopt is that they’re holding out hope that they can conceive their own child. Here’s what some studies have found on adoption for infertile couples:
- One of the primary alternatives for infertility treatment is adoption. Adoption often negates treatment costs and mental pressures for the couple. (International Journal of Reproductive BioMedicine, 2011)38
- One study of infertile Iranian couples found that only 38% of men and 47.5% of women had considered adoption. 36% of men and 43.5% of women said they were satisfied with adoption as an alternative to treatment. (International Journal of Reproductive BioMedicine, 2011)38
- Only 4.5% of couples in this study had adopted a child.
- 42.5% of men and 43% of women said that the gender of their adopted child was important to them.
- 60.7% of Iranian men preferred to adopt a boy, and 56.2% of Iranian women preferred to adopt a girl.
- A separate Iranian study found that 82% of respondents were unwilling to adopt a baby. 78% said the hope of having a natural-born child was their main barrier to adoption. (International Journal of Reproductive BioMedicine, 2012)39
How Does Infertility Affect Couples?
Infertility can create issues for both individuals and couples. Shame, guilt, stress, anxiety, and depression are just a few of the common symptoms.
It’s important to remember that infertility is not either partner’s fault. Treatment may be long and arduous, but there’s a good chance of success with perseverance.
These are some of the negatives that couples deal with as a result of infertility:
- It’s estimated that 25-60% of infertile couples deal with psychiatric problems. (La Clinica Terapeutica, 2014)40
- One survey found that infertility – or even just difficulty conceiving – affected the mental health and/or relationships of 83% of Americans. (Single Care, 2020a)6
- In one survey, these were the most commonly reported mental health and relationship problems resulting from infertility in Americans: (Single Care, 2020a)6
- Depression – 51%
- Anxiety – 46%
- Increased tension with their partner – 25%
- Decreased enjoyment of sex – 23%
- Decreased frequency of sex – 22%
- Difficulty being around other pregnant couples – 20%
- Difficulty being around friends with children – 16%
- Fertility problems led them to counseling or therapy – 8%
- Fertility problems led them to divorce or separation – 4%
- Other mental health or relationship implications – 1%
- Infertility did not affect their mental health or relationships – 17%
- One study found that nearly all couples going through assisted reproductive technology treatments experience high levels of stress and anxiety. (European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology, 2017)41
- Of couples using fertility treatments, 14% separated and re-partnered during the process. (Fertility and Sterility, 2014)42
Is Infertility Hereditary?
This seems like a no-brainer. If infertility was hereditary, how would it get passed down through generations?
In reality, infertility can be hereditary, but usually isn’t. Here’s what research has discovered on the hereditary links to infertility:
- About 10-15% of couples experience infertility. (Genome Medical, 2021)43
- Over half of these cases are caused by an underlying genetic issue that may have been inherited.
- Most infertility cases are not caused by a known inherited condition.
- Both male and female factors each account for about one-third of infertility cases; the remaining third of cases are caused by either unknown issues or both male and female infertility factors.
- Genetics contribute to about 10% of female infertility. (Genome Medical, 2021)43
- Some genetic conditions or chromosome issues can cause female infertility and may be inherited: (Genome Medical, 2021)43
- Turner Syndrome – Individuals with Turner syndrome are either partially or completely missing one copy of their X-chromosome, which can cause ovarian insufficiency.
- Fragile X-Associated Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (FXPOI) – Women that are carriers of Fragile X syndrome (a genetic change on one of the X-chromosomes) have an increased risk of primary ovarian insufficiency, which causes the ovaries to stop functioning normally before age 40.
- Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) – CAH is a genetic condition that affects both women and men. For women with CAH, changes in the adrenal gland can cause hormone imbalances that lead to changes in menstrual cycles affecting fertility.
- Chromosome rearrangements – Individuals that carry chromosome rearrangements have an increased chance to pass down too much or too little chromosomal material, which could impact the ability to conceive a pregnancy, increase the risk of pregnancy loss, or result in offspring with congenital disabilities or intellectual differences.
Infertility Among Twins
Oddly enough, having a twin can affect your fertility later in life. At least, if you’re female, it can.
One study found a curious link between twins and fertility:
- In a pair of twins where one is male and one is female, the female twin is 25% less likely to reproduce in their lifetime than a female who has a female twin. (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2007)44
- The fertility of male twins and the numbers of their offspring do not seem to be affected by the sex of their partner twin. (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2007)44
Infertility is a rising problem that affects at least 1 in 10 people – maybe more. Its intensity can vary from person to person and partner to partner, meaning that certain people can have better luck conceiving a child with one person than with another.
However, most people aren’t going to jump from partner to partner, hoping for a child. And in many cases, a person will be infertile no matter who they try to conceive with.
For all levels of infertility, there are treatments available at varying costs and intensities. The most effective treatment is in vitro fertilization (IVF), which is responsible for well over 8 million babies to date.
Whether infertility can be treated or not, it takes a psychological toll on couples who want to start a family. This can present with guilt, depression, anxiety, stress, or other symptoms. However, no matter the cause, infertility is a medical condition, and it is not the fault of either partner.
Expanding insurance coverage for fertility treatments can help offset both the monetary and psychological costs of infertility for couples. Treatments are being developed and improved each day.
Even with the global rise in infertility rates, medical options that help couples conceive a child are more accessible and successful than ever before. If you’re having trouble conceiving a child, you’re not alone – the condition is very common, and there are options for treatment.
- World Health Organization, 2020a. An article from the World Health Organization on the characteristics of medical infertility.
- World Health Organization, (Archived) 2020b. An article on the worldwide prevalence of infertility and how it affects women.
- World Health Organization, 2019. An overview of available data on infertility worldwide and the number of people it affects.
- University of Utah Health, 2020. An article on the prevalence of male infertility and available treatments.
- Biology of Reproduction, 2019. An article on increased rates of male infertility worldwide and methods of prevention and treatment.
- Single Care, 2020a. An article on the lack of fertility awareness as well as the effectiveness of treatments using data from a survey of 600 Americans.
- Mayo Clinic, 2021a. An article on the characteristics of infertility, including its prevalence, symptoms, and treatment options.
- Fertility Answers, 2020. An article on infertility statistics, the characteristics of infertility, and its common causes.
- Premier Health, 2016. An article addressing the rise in infertility rates and its potential causes citing input from Steven Lindheim, MD.
- Aging, 2019. A study on reproductive health using data from 277 health surveys across 190 countries between 1990 and 2010.
- National Health Statistics Reports, 2013. A study on infertility using data from 22,682 interviews of American men and women.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018a. An article on statistics relating to infertility from the National Survey of Family Growth.
- Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, 2015. A study of 16 academic articles related to the prevalence of male infertility worldwide.
- Cleveland Clinic, 2021. An article on the prevalence of male infertility, its common causes and symptoms, and potential treatments.
- StatPearls, 2021. An academic article on the various medical causes of female infertility and their prevalences.
- CNY Fertility, 2022. An article on the prevalence of infertility and its various medical causes for men and women.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018b. A FAQ section from the CDC on infertility and its causes.
- Loma Linda University, 2019. An article on different types of ovulation disorders that can cause infertility in women.
- Clinics, 2015. A study on infertility treatments of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
- Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, 2010. A study of the condition called endometriosis and the possibility of enhancing fertility in patients.
- Human Reproduction, 2016. A study of 58,427 married Ameican nurses under the age of 40 from 1989 to 2005.
- American Society for Reproductive Medicine, 2015. An article on the characteristics of fibroids, their prevalence, and their impact on fertility.
- Science, 1986. An article on the relationship between age and fertility using historical data and analysis of modern sexual behavioral trends.
- Better Health, n.d. An informative article on the relationship between age and fertility.
- Extend Fertility, 2018. An article on the prevalence and causes of male infertility and how to test for it.
- Human Reproduction, 2008. A study examining the relationship between male age and sperm motility using data from 90 non-smoking men aged 22-80.
- Loma Linda University, 2017. An article on the shape and size (morphology) of sperm, its different types, and its effect on fertility.
- Legacy, 2021. An article on the physiological ways that a man’s age impacts the characteristics of his sperm and fertility.
- New England Journal of Medicine, 1995. A study of sperm count and fertility among 1,351 healthy men in Paris.
- Fertility and Sterility, 2017. A study of fertility by ethnicity in the U.S. using National Survey of Family Growth data from 25,523 respondents.
- MedlinePlus, 2015. An article on Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) and its various implementation types.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017. A summary report of assisted reproductive technology in the U.S. and the prevalence of its use.
- Fertility and Sterility, 2013. A study on the evaluation and treatment of infertility in women using data from 4,558 American married or cohabiting women aged 25-44.
- Mayo Clinic, 2021b. An article on the process of in vitro fertilization, the medical infertility conditions that it can counteract, potential risks, and more.
- Single Care, 2020b. An article on the process of in vitro fertilization, its costs, success rates, ways to pay for it, and more.
- Fertility Solutions, 2013. An article on the estimated success rates after one cycle of IVF and some tips to increase one’s chances of getting pregnant.
- European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology, 2018. An article on the history of IFV and the number of babies worldwide that have been born as a result of it.
- International Journal of Reproductive BioMedicine, 2011. A study of adoption acceptance among infertile couples using data from 277 infertile couples in Iran.
- International Journal of Reproductive BioMedicine, 2012. A study of infertile couples’ willingness or unwillingness to adopt a child using data from 240 infertile couples in Iran.
- La Clinica Terapeutica, 2014. A study on the emotional and psychological impacts of infertility on couples and individuals.
- European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology, 2017. A study on how fertility treatments impact the risk of divorce using data from 42,845 female patients in Denmark.
- Fertility and Sterility, 2014. A study of the effect of fertility treatments on couples using data from 1,401 participants.
- Genome Medical, 2021. An article on the genetic factors that affect human infertility in both men and women.
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2007. A study on how twins of different genders can affect each other’s fertility later in life.