How Common Is Erectile Dysfunction? [ED Statistics of 2022]

In this article, we found the best studies and statistics on how common erectile dysfunction is, its prevalence, what causes it, and how you can reverse it.

how common is erectile dysfunction

For men, erectile dysfunction (ED) can be a nightmare. Despite being a natural and often reversible condition, many men feel too embarrassed to seek treatment. 

ED can happen for a multitude of reasons – stress, medication, or aging, to name a few. If you’re experiencing ED, you might feel ashamed to talk about it. However, both you and your partner(s) will feel much better when you understand the causes and treatments. 

These data points won’t go soft on you:

  • One-third of all men are affected by erectile dysfunction, and the prevalence increases with age. 
  • Erectile Dysfunction (ED) affects as many as 30 million American men.
  • Of all continents, Europe has the highest rate of erectile dysfunction, and South America has the lowest.
  • Men with diabetes are 2-3 times more likely to develop ED.
  • Vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and high cholesterol account for 70% of physical-related causes of ED. 
  • Depressed men are twice as likely to have ED, and many treatments for major depressive disorders can cause ED. 
  • One survey found that 39% of men with ED never sought treatment for it. 
  • 36% of men in one survey reported experiencing no side effects from their ED medication. 

What Is Erectile Dysfunction?

If you’re not comfortable describing the condition, we’ll do it for you. In a nutshell, ED is what happens when a man can’t perform sexually for any reason. 

Here’s the medical data:

  • Erectile Dysfunction (ED), also called impotence, is when a man can’t achieve or maintain an erection of the penis that’s sexually satisfying for both partners. (Web MD, 2020)1
  • One survey found that the following percentages of American men are comfortable talking about their sexual health with a partner: (Hims, 2021)2
    • I’m extremely comfortable – 43%
    • I’m very comfortable – 36%
    • I’m somewhat comfortable – 16%
    • I’m not at all comfortable – 5%
  • 46% of American men are uncomfortable talking about sex-related concerns like ED. (Cleveland Clinic, 2019a)3

How Common Is Erectile Dysfunction?

Erectile dysfunction is more common than you think. At least 1 in 3 men suffer from the condition, and many of them are older. 

However, dealing with ED doesn’t mean you’re becoming an old man, and older men aren’t the only ones who naturally develop sexual performance issues. Take a look at the numbers:

  • Erectile Dysfunction affects as many as 30 million American men. (Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension, 2012)4
  • An estimated 152 million men worldwide had ED in 1995; projections for 2025 showed approximately 322 million men suffering from ED, with the largest projected increases in developing countries in Africa, Asia, and South America. (BJU International, 2001)5
  • One survey found that 36% of men had experienced erectile dysfunction in the past year. (Hims, 2021)2
  • One-third of all men are affected by erectile dysfunction, and the likelihood increases with age. (Sexual Medicine, 2018)6
  • The global prevalence of ED varies wildly from 3 to 76.5%, depending on study criteria and especially age groups. Prevalence by continent is as follows: (BJU International, 2019)7
    • Europe – 10-76.5% (highest overall prevalence)
    • Asia – 8-71.2%
    • Oceania – 40.3-60.69%
    • Africa – 24-58.9%
    • North America – 20.7-57.8%
    • South America – 14-55.2%
  • A study of sexual health in older adults found that erectile difficulties were the most common problems (reported by 37%) among men. (New England Journal of Medicine, 2007)8

Does Erectile Dysfunction Last Forever?

If you’ve ever been able to have an erection, chances are you’ll be able to have one again. Cases where a man has never been able to function sexually are exceedingly rare. 

Here’s how medicine differentiates between permanent and temporary ED:

  • Two types of ED have been identified by doctors: (Medical News Today, 2018)9
    • Primary ED is when a man has never been able to have or maintain an erection. This condition is rare and may require intensive medical treatments. 
    • Secondary ED is when a man used to have regular erectile function and is common. This condition is usually temporary and can be reversed. 
  • One study found that ED remission occurred in 29.0% of participants after 5 years. (The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 2014)10

At What Age Is Erectile Dysfunction Most Prevalent?

As we get older, many of our bodily functions don’t work quite the way they used to. ED affects men of all ages, but it really starts to kick in once they hit their late 40s. 

Here’s what science has found on erectile dysfunction by age:

  • One study found that the percentages of men first experiencing ED by age are as follows: (Annals of Internal Medicine, 2003)11
    • Before 40 years old – Less than 2%
    • 40 to 49 years old – 4%
    • 50 to 59 years old – 26%
    • 60 to 69 years old – 40%
  • The same study found that sexual function decreased with age. The following percentages of each age group reported moderate or big sexual problems: (Annals of Internal Medicine, 2003)11
    • Younger than 59 – 12%
    • Ages 60 to 69 – 22%
    • Older than 69 – 30%
  • A Turkish study found the following ED prevalence rates by age group: (Turkish Journal of Urology, 2017)12
    • Overall – 33%
    • 40-49 years old – 17%
    • 50-59 years old – 35.5%
    • 60-69 years old – 68.8%
    • 70 years and older – 82.9%
  • An Italian study found that ED was present in 26% of male participants aged 40 or younger. (The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 2013)13
  • One study found an ED prevalence of 8% in men ages 20-29 and 11% in men aged 30-39. (Translational Andrology and Urology, 2017)14

Erectile Dysfunction Severity

Does ED mean you can never get an erection? What if you can get an erection sometimes, or only with certain people? 

The severity of ED varies from man to man and from situation to situation. 

  • 52% of American men have reported some degree of erectile dysfunction. (Journal of Urology, 1994)15
  • In one study, the prevalence of moderate impotence doubled from 17% to 34% between the ages of 40 and 70. Complete impotence tripled from 5% to 15%. (Journal of Urology, 1994)15
  • By degree of impotence, the following percentages of American men experience ED: (Journal of Urology, 1994)15
    • Mild impotence – 17% of Americans
    • Moderate impotence – 25% of Americans
    • Complete impotence – 10% of Americans
  • Many studies use the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), and one found that severe ED rates were present in 48.8% of younger men and 40% of older men. (The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 2013)13
  • A study of 2,760 men over 40 found that 76.9% reported mild ED, 16.3% reported moderate ED, and 5.7% reported severe ED. (Turkish Journal of Urology, 2017)12

What Are the Complications of ED?

ED can cause a lot more trouble than a few awkward sexual encounters. For men with partners, it can create strain and insecurity on both sides of the relationship. 

This can cause men to avoid sex, and their partners may feel like it’s their fault. The easiest way to deal with this is to communicate with your partner and seek treatment. 

Here’s how ED can affect more than just sex:

  • Erectile Dysfunction can create complications such as: (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, 2021a)16
    • An unfulfilling sex life.
    • Loss of intimacy between partners and strained relationships. 
    • Depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. 
    • Being unable to conceive a child with a partner.
  • One survey of American men ages 25-45 reported the following issues that ED created for their relationships: (Hims, 2021)2
    • ED impacts my relationship with my partner or my dating life – 59%
    • I avoid sexual encounters because of ED – 54%
    • I often fight with my partner because of ED – 53%
  • Sexual partners of patients with ED have reported the following psychological effects: (Nature Reviews Urology, 2016)17
    • ED can make a man’s partner confused about the changes in his sexual behavior. 
    • ED causes anxieties in sexual partners. They can worry about whether or not the man is potent with other people, feel suspicious of affairs, or believe that their partner is losing sexual interest in them. 
    • ED can impact a partner’s view of their own sexual desirability and base their self-esteem on how the man responds to their sexual advances. These feelings can be very damaging to a relationship. 
  • An Australian study found that 22% of participants with ED said their female partner’s reaction was negative; female partners expressed feeling shattered, disappointed, and frustrated. (Nature Reviews Urology, 2016)17
  • The following percentages of women experienced sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and satisfaction with their male partner before and after ED: (The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 2005)18
    • Sexual desire
      • Pre-ED – 74%
      • Currently – 47%
    • Sexual arousal
      • Pre-ED – 75%
      • Currently – 46%
    • Orgasm
      • Pre-ED – 64%
      • Currently – 33%
    • Satisfaction
      • Pre-ED – 85%
      • Currently – 38%

What Causes ED?

While age often causes ED naturally, several other lifestyle choices and medical factors can impact a man’s ability to get hard. 

Stress, diabetes, smoking cigarettes – the list goes on and on. Here’s a comprehensive index of anything that can cause ED:

  • Medical Diseases and Conditions that Cause ED:
    • The following diseases and conditions can cause erectile dysfunction: (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, 2021b)19
      • Type 2 diabetes.
      • Heart and blood vessel disease.
      • Atherosclerosis.
      • High blood pressure.
      • Chronic kidney disease.
      • Multiple sclerosis.
      • Peyronie’s disease.
      • Injury from treatments for prostate cancer, including radiation therapy and prostate surgery.
      • Injury to the penis, spinal cord, prostate, bladder, or pelvis.
      • Surgery for bladder cancer.
    • Diabetic men have an increased risk of developing ED, and prevalence rates range from 35% to 90%. (The World Journal of Men’s Health, 2016)20
    • Men with diabetes are 2-3 times more likely to develop ED. (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, 2021b)19
    • Vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and high cholesterol account for 70% of physical-related causes of ED. They restrict blood flow to the heart, brain, and even the penis. (Cleveland Clinic, 2019b)21
    • Atherosclerosis alone accounts for 50-60% of ED cases in men over 60. (Cleveland Clinic, 2019b)21
    • ED is highly prevalent among patients with chronic kidney disease, up to rates of 70% – especially in those experiencing an end-stage renal disease. (World Journal of Nephrology, 2015)22
    • Peyronie’s Disease is when fibrous scar tissue develops on the penis and causes painful curved erections. (Mayo Clinic, 2021)23
    • In one study, patients with Peyronie’s Disease had a higher prevalence of moderate (10.47%), mild to moderate (20.93%), and mild (12.95%) erectile dysfunction. (Sexual Medicine, 2020)24
    • Roughly 25-50% of prostate cancer patients who undergo brachytherapy (internal localized radiation treatment) will experience ED, and nearly 50% of men who undergo standard external beam radiation will experience ED. (Johns Hopkins Medicine, 2019)25
  • Medicines That Can Cause ED:
    • The following medicines can cause erectile dysfunction: (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, 2021b)19
      • Blood pressure medicines
      • Antiandrogens—medicines used for prostate cancer therapy
      • Antidepressants
      • Tranquilizers, or prescription sedatives—medicines that make you calmer or sleepy
      • Appetite suppressants, or medicines that make you less hungry
      • Ulcer medicines
    • ED is a common side effect of many prescription drugs. Treating another disease or condition may affect a man’s hormones, nerves, or circulation, which can potentially cause ED. (Cleveland Clinic, 2019c)26
  • Psychological Causes of ED:
    • The following psychological factors can lead to ED: (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, 2021b)19
      • Fear of sexual failure
      • Anxiety
      • Depression
      • Guilt about sexual performance or certain sexual activities
      • Low self-esteem
      • Stress about sexual performance or stress in your life in general
    • Stress and anxiety about ED can contribute to ongoing ED. ED can also cause behavioral changes that perpetuate it. There are some reasons for ED: (Healthline, 2016)27
      • Psychological ED (nervousness and anxiety) affects about 90 percent of teenagers and young men. This ED tends to pass quickly.
      • Personal and professional stress, such as relationship trouble, is the main reason for ED in middle-aged men.
      • Physical impotence is the most common cause for older men, but the loss of a partner and loneliness can also cause psychological stress.
    • Depressed men are twice as likely to have ED, and many treatments for major depressive disorders can cause ED. (The World Journal of Mens’ Health, 2016)
  • Health Factors and Behaviors That Can Cause ED:
    • Health-related factors and behaviors that cause ED are as follows: (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, 2021b)19
      • Smoking
      • Drinking too much alcohol
      • Using illegal drugs
      • Being overweight
      • Not being physically active
    • Many cross-sectional studies show that overweight and obese men have an increase in the risk of ED ranging from 1.5 to 3.0 times. (The World Journal of Men’s Health, 2016)20
    • Smokers were 1.5 times more likely to have ED, according to multiple studies. The increase in risk varies from 1.5 to 3.1 times that of non-smokers. (The World Journal of Men’s Health, 2016)20
    • A study of American men from 1989-2003 found the following ED prevalences in those who never smoked vs. those who did: (American Journal of Epidemiology, 2005)28
      • Never Smoker
        • Erectile Dysfunction
          • Yes – 60 American men (12.2%)
          • No – 431 American men (87.8%)
      • Ever Smoker
        • Erectile Dysfunction
          • Yes – 141 American men (16.9%)
          • No – 695 American men (83.1%)
    • The prevalence of ED in smokers by number of packs per year is as follows: (American Journal of Epidemiology, 2005)28
      • Yes (experiences ED)
        • 0 packs per year – 60 American men (12.2%)
        • 1-12.5 packs per year – 31 American men (11.4%)
        • 12.6-29.0 packs per year – 41 American men (15.8%)
        • >29.0 packs per year – 62 American men (22.5%)
      • No (does not experience ED)
        • 0 packs per year – 431 American men (87.8%)
        • 1-12.5 packs per year – 242 American men (88.6%)
        • 12.6-29.0 packs per year – 219 American men (84.2%)
        • >29.0 packs per year – 214 American men (77.5%)
    • Alcohol dependence is a chronic medical condition that typically includes heavy drinking (past or present), cravings for alcohol, and an inability to control consumption despite problems. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014)29
    • One study found that one-third of males diagnosed with alcohol dependence reported ED. 19.79% had difficulty getting an erection, and 13.54% had trouble maintaining an erection. (Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 2007)30
  • One survey found the following data on what American men reported the physical cause of their ED to be: (Single Care, 2021)31
    • High blood pressure – 29% of American men
    • Don’t know the physical causes of their ED – 27% of men
    • Low testosterone – 23% of men
    • As a side effect of medication – 23% of men
    • Overweight/obese – 19% of men
    • Diabetes – 19% of men
    • High cholesterol and/or clogged blood vessels (atherosclerosis) – 13% of men
    • Heart disease – 10% of men
    • Prostate cancer or enlarged prostate – 9% of men
    • COPD (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) – 7% of men
    • Other physical causes of ED (i.e., diet, age, poor circulation, nerve damage) – 7% of men
    • Spinal cord injuries – 6% of men
    • Bladder problems – 5% of men
    • As a complication of surgery – 4% of men
    • Renal (kidney) disease or failure – 3% of men
  • One survey found the following data on what American men reported the emotional cause of their ED to be: (Single Care, 2021)31
    • Stress – 35% of American men
    • Anxiety – 32% of men
    • Depression – 27% of men
    • Substance use (includes smoking/tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and using illicit drugs) – 27% of men
    • Low libido – 20% of men
    • Don’t know the emotional causes – 19% of men
    • Low self-esteem – 16% of men
    • Relationship problems – 13% of men
    • Other mental causes of ED (i.e., schizophrenia, Peyronie’s disease) – 1% of men
    • None of the listed causes – 22% of men

ED Treatments and Techniques for American Men

So if you have ED, what are your options? Nearly 4 in 10 men don’t seek treatment for their ED, but those who do often see positive results. 

Here’s the data on treatment types, costs, and percentages of men who use them:

  • 26% of respondents in one survey said they waited one year or longer to seek treatment for ED. (Single Care, 2021)31
  • The following percentages of American men sought ED treatment at these times: (Single Care, 2021)31
    • Immediately after experiencing ED – 5% of American men
    • After 1 to 3 months of experiencing ED – 7% of men
    • After 4 to 6 months of experiencing ED – 10% of men
    • After 7 to 9 months of experiencing ED – 5% of men
    • After 10 to 12 months of experiencing ED – 9% of men
    • After 1 to 2 years of experiencing ED – 11% of men
    • After 2 to 3 years of experiencing ED – 5% of men
    • After 3 to 4 years of experiencing ED – 3% of men
    • After 5 or more years of experiencing ED – 6% of men
    • Never sought ED treatment – 39% of men
  • Of the men in the aforementioned survey who never sought treatment, here are the reasons they provided: (Single Care, 2021)31
    • 37% don’t always experience ED.
    • 35% believe ED is just a natural part of aging.
    • 27% are not concerned enough about ED to seek treatment.
    • 20% did not feel comfortable talking to their healthcare provider about ED treatment.
    • 17% cannot afford ED treatment or reported that ED treatment is too expensive.
    • 13% believe ED will go away on its own without treatment.
    • 12% do not have a desire to have sex or reported that sexual health is not an important quality of life for them.
    • 8% have a serious illness/chronic health condition that they need to prioritize above ED.
    • 6% reported other reasons (i.e., does not have a sexual partner, it only happened once).
    • 6% did not feel comfortable filling their ED prescription.
    • 4% do not have a healthcare provider who I can trust.
    • 2% reported their healthcare provider was or seemed unwilling to discuss ED with them.
  • American men reported using the following treatments for ED: (Single Care, 2021)31
    • ED medication – 63%
    • Vitamins, dietary supplements, or herbal remedies for ED – 31%
    • Exercise – 28%
    • Testosterone replacement – 20%
    • Diet changes – 20%
    • Meditation – 13
    • Participated in talk therapy and/or couples therapy – 12%
    • ED devices (i.e., rings, vacuum pumps, etc.) – 11%
    • Prostate massage – 9%
    • Acupuncture – 7%
    • Other ED treatments (i.e., changes in medication, injectable drugs) – 4%
    • Stem cell therapy – 3%
    • Platelet-rich plasma – 3%
    • Penile implants – 2%
    • Shockwave therapy – 2%
  • Americans reported the following costs associated with ED treatments: (Single Care, 2021)31
    • $0 per year on ED treatment – 19%
    • $1-$50 per year on ED treatment – 11%
    • $51-$100 per year on ED treatment – 20%
    • $101-$200 per year on ED treatment – 14%
    • $201-$300 per year on ED treatment – 8%
    • $301-$400 per year on ED treatment – 7%
    • $401-$500 per year on ED treatment – 7%
    • $501-$750 per year on ED treatment – 8%
    • $751-$1,000 per year on ED treatment – 2%
    • $1,001-$2,500 per year on ED treatment – 3%
    • $2,501-$5,000 per year on ED treatment – 1%
  • American men reported paying for ED treatments in the following ways: (Single Care, 2021)31
    • 34% paid out of pocket for all ED treatment.
    • 26% reported their insurance partially covered ED treatment.
    • 14% used a prescription discount card to get a discount on ED medications.
    • 13% reported insurance completely covered ED treatment.
    • 10% ordered ED treatment through a mail-order pharmacy.
    • 9% reported Medicare completely covered ED treatment.
    • 8% used an online U.S. pharmacy to receive more affordable ED medications.
    • 5% used an international pharmacy/mail order to receive more affordable ED medications.
    • 5% reported Medicare partially covered ED treatment.
    • 3% reported other types of payment for ED treatment (i.e., VA, Medicaid).
    • 2% traveled out of state to receive more affordable ED treatments.
    • 11% reported none of the listed options.
  • 48% of men report using lifestyle changes to get rid of their ED. (Hims, 2021)2
  • Another survey found that many American men reported using these techniques to combat ED: (Hims, 2021)2
    • Lifestyle changes (e.g., exercise, diet, alcohol consumption) – 48%
    • Solo masturbation – 38%
    • Prescription ED medication (e.g., Viagra (Sildenafil), Cialis (Tadalafil) – 37%
    • Pornography – 36%
    • Supplements or vitamins or other non-prescription pills – 35%
    • Mental health therapy – 31%
    • Wearable devices or sex toys – 15%
    • I have not tried any of these – 4%
  • American men who took ED medications reported the following concerns: (Single Care, 2021)31
    • 29% were reportedly concerned about receiving counterfeit ED medication.
      • 10% bought from a local pharmacy
      • 9% bought from an online pharmacy
      • 6% bought from a mail-order pharmacy
      • 3% traveled internationally to purchase
      • 1% bought from another source
    • 71% were reportedly not concerned about receiving counterfeit ED medication.
      • 52% bought from a local pharmacy
      • 11% bought from an online pharmacy
      • 5% bought from a mail-order pharmacy
      • 2% traveled internationally to purchase
      • 1% bought from another source
  • American men reported these side effects of ED medications: (Single Care, 2021)31
    • No side effects experienced – 36%
    • Headache – 25%
    • Felt dizzy or lightheaded – 20%
    • Experienced flushing – 18%
    • Stuffy or runny nose – 18%
    • Back or muscle pain – 10%
    • Upset stomach or nausea – 10%
    • Experienced vision loss or changes in one or both eyes, including blurry vision – 8%
    • Had an erection that lasts longer than four hours (priapism) – 8%
    • Had hearing loss or ringing in the ears (tinnitus) – 7%
    • Heart attack – 6%
    • Irregular heartbeat – 5%
    • Stroke – 3%
    • Allergic reaction (rash, hives, difficulty breathing, swelling) – 3%
    • Other side effects (i.e., weakness, anxiety, cramps) – 2%
  • 47% of men taking ED medication have been taking it for three years or less. (Single Care, 2021)31
  • One survey found that 71% of respondents experiencing ED were taking medication and had been for the following durations: (Single Care, 2021)31
    • Six months – 11%
    • One year – 16%
    • Two years – 12%
    • Three years – 8%
    • Four years – 5%
    • Five years – 6%
    • Six years – 2%
    • Seven years – 1%
    • Eight years – 4%
    • Nine years – <1%
    • Ten years or longer – 6%
  • 23% of respondents in one survey stopped taking ED medication for the following reasons: (Single Care, 2021)31
    • Their ED went away (8%)
    • ED medication was ineffective (8%)
    • ED medication side effects (7%)

How Common Is ED After Surgeries?

Any surgery in proximity to a man’s private areas has certain risks to his sexual function. 

However, studies show that the chance of developing ED from these procedures is pretty low. Here’s the data:

  • One study of vasectomy patients found that 67% of participants improved their International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) scores after the vasectomy was completed; the procedure ultimately had a positive impact on sexual function. (International Brazilian Journal of Urology, 2005)32
  • After inguinal hernia repair surgery, 5.3% of men in one study developed sexual dysfunction, including ED. (Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 2020)33

Conclusion

Erectile dysfunction affects men of all ages to varying degrees. It’s more likely to happen with age or on certain medications. In most cases, ED is reversible if you talk to your doctor and get treatment

Sexuality is a core factor in human self-esteem and social functioning. But unfortunately, many men are so embarrassed by any deficiency in sexual performance that they refuse to talk about it – even with their partners. 

This can make your partner feel insecure about their appearance or your feelings toward them. Most men experience ED at some point, and it’s nothing to be ashamed of. Communicating with your partner can make both of you feel better. 

ED can be caused by psychological stress, and many men have found that therapy helped restore their libido. Others used medications, supplements, or even sex toys. Ultimately, your body is something that you understand better than anyone else. 

The factors affecting your sexuality are unique to you, and you’ll need to do your own experimenting to find the treatments that work best. As scary as the conversation about ED can be, the condition is completely normal, and you will feel better if you address the problem and find a solution. 


Footnotes

  1. Web MD, 2020. A medically reviewed article on the definition of erectile dysfunction, its causes, symptoms, and potential treatments.
  2. Hims, 2021. A summary report of a survey of 1,403 American men aged 25 to 45 on their attitudes toward their own health.
  3. Cleveland Clinic, 2019a. An overview of survey results on men’s attitudes toward health concerns using data from 1,174 American men aged 18 or older.
  4. Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension, 2012. An article studying the specific relationship between hypertension and erectile dysfunction.
  5. BJU International, 2001. A study aiming to project the increase in male erectile dysfunction rates through 2025 using data from the Massachusetts Male Aging Study.
  6. Sexual Medicine, 2018. An article on the correlation between physical exercise and erectile dysfunction using data from 10 eligible studies.
  7. BJU International, 2019. A study aiming to determine global rates of ED as well as its relation to other conditions such as cardiovascular disease and dementia.
  8. New England Journal of Medicine, 2007. A study of the sexual behaviors and functionality of older adults using data from 3,005 Americans aged 57 to 85.
  9. Medical News Today, 2018. A medically-reviewed article on the potential treatments of erectile dysfunction and the possibility of reversing the condition.
  10. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 2014. A study on predictive factors for onset and remission of ED using data from 810 Australian men.
  11. Annals of Internal Medicine, 2003. A study of 31,742 men aged 53 to 90 (as of 2003; study began in 1986) that aimed to determine how sexual function in men changes with age.
  12. Turkish Journal of Urology, 2017. A study of erectile dysfunction in men over 40 using data from 2,760 Turkish males.
  13. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 2013. A study on the supposed increase in erectile dysfunction in young men using data from 439 Italian patients.
  14. Translational Andrology and Urology, 2017. A study of the causes of erectile dysfunction among fit and healthy young men.
  15. Journal of Urology, 1994. A study of erectile dysfunction and its related factors using data from 1,709 American men aged 40 to 70.
  16. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, 2021a. An article on the complications of erectile dysfunction, its prevalence, and its symptoms.
  17. Nature Reviews Urology, 2016. A study on the role a sexual partner plays in managing erectile dysfunction for men.
  18. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 2005. A study on the sexual satisfaction and experiences of females who have a male partner with ED using data from 293 women.
  19. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, 2021b. An article on the various medical and biological causes and symptoms of erectile dysfunction.
  20. The World Journal of Men’s Health, 2016. A study of 32 different studies on the risk factors of developing erectile dysfunction.
  21. Cleveland Clinic, 2019b. An article on heart disease and the causes and symptoms of erectile dysfunction.
  22. World Journal of Nephrology, 2015. A study on the relationship between chronic kidney disease and erectile dysfunction.
  23. Mayo Clinic, 2021. An article on the characteristics, causes, symptoms, and treatments of Peyronie’s disease.
  24. Sexual Medicine, 2020. A study of the associations between Peyronie’s Disease and erectile dysfunction using data from 656 Brazilian urology patients.
  25. Johns Hopkins Medicine, 2019. An article on the prevalence of erectile dysfunction following prostate cancer and prostate cancer treatments.
  26. Cleveland Clinic, 2019c. A medical article on the definition of erectile dysfunction, its prevalence, and its common causes.
  27. Healthline, 2016. A medically-reviewed article on the relationship between stress, anxiety, and erectile dysfunction.
  28. American Journal of Epidemiology, 2005. A population-based study on the relationship between smoking and erectile dysfunction in 2,115 Caucasian men aged 40 to 79.
  29. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014. A CDC report on excessive alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence in the U.S.
  30. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 2007. A study on the prevalence of ED in 100 Indian males with alcohol dependence.
  31. Single Care, 2021. A survey of 500 American men who currently have or used to have ED to determine causes and treatments.
  32. International Brazilian Journal of Urology, 2005. A study of sexual function in 64 Brazilian patients undergoing a vasectomy.
  33. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 2020. A study of 4,884 patients from 12 different studies to determine sexual function and pain levels after hernia surgery.
Dainis Graveris

Dainis Graveris

Over last 4 years Dainis have helped millions of people through his advice on this site (200+ guides and 1M+ visits/monthly). His work & advice has appeared on sites like: Healthline, Vice, Cosmopolitan, Men's Health, WomensHealthMag, MindBodyGreen & more. Read More

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